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The provision of energy – including distribution and consumption – belongs to the basic requirements of a sustainable development. The transition from the predominant energy system constructed in the 70s and 80s to a more decentralised system that comprises more renewable energy already is in progress. However, there are still lots of unanswered questions, especially with regard to the interactions between the transformation of energy systems, the required infrastructure and the interactions with other resources. These questions do not only refer to technologies but also to their management, the connected institutions and social perception and acceptance, which, on the one hand, are subject to a permanent change and, on the other, depend on different cultural frame conditions in different countries.